top of page

In Canada, citizenship is typically acquired in three main ways: by birth within the country, through descent if born abroad to Canadian parents (with the condition that they are the first generation born outside Canada), and by naturalization for permanent residents who meet certain residency requirements. To become a citizen through naturalization, permanent residents must have lived in Canada for at least three years (1,095 days) within a five-year period before applying.

Once acquired, Canadian citizenship is permanent unless it was granted through fraudulent means. Canadian citizens are afforded several rights, including the freedom to travel in and out of the country, the privilege to vote in elections, and the ability to hold a Canadian passport, among other benefits.

Citizenship By Naturalization

In Canada, individuals who hold permanent resident status have the opportunity to apply for citizenship through a process known as naturalization after they've lived in Canada for a predetermined period. This pathway not only extends citizenship to the applicants but also ensures that any children they have while being naturalized Canadians, even if born abroad, are automatically Canadian citizens.

Furthermore, Canada supports the concept of dual citizenship. This means permanent residents transitioning to Canadian citizenship do not have to renounce their original nationality, assuming their home country's laws also recognize and permit dual citizenship. This provision allows individuals to enjoy the benefits and privileges of citizenship from two countries simultaneously.

Citizenship By Descent

Anyone born in Canada automatically acquires Canadian citizenship. Additionally, individuals born abroad to a parent who is a Canadian citizen by birth or naturalization (and that parent being the first generation born outside Canada) are also eligible for citizenship by descent.

Holding Canadian citizenship comes with a number of benefits not available to permanent residents, including the right to participate in Canadian elections and the eligibility to hold a Canadian passport.

Citizenship by Naturalization

Canadian Citizenship Application Requirements

To be eligible for Canadian citizenship, permanent residents must adhere to specific residency and compliance requirements. Here’s a streamlined summary of the prerequisites:


  • Residency Obligations: Applicants need to have been physically present in Canada for at least three out of the five years prior to their application. Notably, time spent in Canada as a temporary resident or protected person before becoming a permanent resident counts towards this requirement, albeit at a half-day rate for up to 365 days.

  • Tax Compliance: It's also mandatory for applicants to have filed Canadian income tax returns, if required under the Income Tax Act, for at least three years within the five-year period preceding their application.

  • Language Proficiency: Applicants aged 18 to 54 must demonstrate sufficient proficiency in either English or French, Canada's official languages. This can be proven by submitting acceptable language test scores, such as IELTS or CELPIP for English and TEF for French, evidencing a language ability at Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) level 4 or higher for speaking and listening. Alternatively, evidence of completing a post-secondary program in English or French, or proof of completing language training that meets the CLB 4 benchmark, is also acceptable.


Meeting these criteria ensures applicants have not only fulfilled their physical presence in Canada but have also integrated into Canadian society through language and economic participation.

Canadian Citizenship Test

Applying for Canadian citizenship involves a mandatory test for permanent residents aged between 18 and 54, designed to assess their understanding of Canada's history, values, institutions, and symbols

Preparing for the Test:

Applicants are advised to study the "Discover Canada: The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship" booklet, which serves as the foundation for the citizenship test. This guide encompasses Canada's history, governance, culture, and other key aspects that form the essence of Canadian citizenship.

Understanding the Test Format:

The citizenship test is written and comprises 20 multiple-choice questions, reflecting the content of the "Discover Canada" booklet. To pass, applicants must answer at least 15 questions correctly. In instances where an applicant does not pass on their first attempt, a second opportunity to take the test is offered. Failure on the second attempt leads to an oral test conducted during an interview with a citizenship officer.

Судья и молоток

Have Any Questions? Looking for Guidance?

Loyally helping clients in GTA and Ottawa areas, including Markham, Brampton, Missisauga, Georgina, Toronto, Oshawa

Benefits of Canadian Citizenship

Canadian citizenship offers expansive opportunities and privileges across various facets of life, distinguishing it notably from

permanent residency.

Employment Opportunities

Canadian citizens have access to a wide array of job opportunities, including exclusive positions within the federal government that demand citizenship due to their sensitivity or legal requirements. Permanent residents, while able to work in Canada, may find certain positions inaccessible because of their residency status.

Dual Citizenship

Embracing the concept of dual nationality, Canada allows its citizens to also hold citizenship of another country, provided the laws of that country permit dual citizenship. This policy enriches cultural ties and offers citizens the flexibility to maintain international connections.

Travel Benefits

A Canadian passport is a powerful document that facilitates easier travel to numerous countries, often without the need for a visa. Moreover, Canadian citizens abroad are entitled to assistance from Canadian embassies and consulates during emergencies, enhancing their global mobility and safety.

Permanent Citizenship Status

Unlike permanent residency, which comes with conditions and renewal requirements, Canadian citizenship is a lifelong status that does not necessitate living in Canada for a specified period to maintain. Citizenship remains intact regardless of time spent abroad, offering stability and security. Unlike permanent residents, Canadian citizens do not face the risk of losing their status due to criminal convictions, emphasizing the enduring nature of citizenship.

Citizenship by Descent

Children born abroad to Canadian citizens are automatically eligible for Canadian citizenship if their parent is a first-generation Canadian. This policy ensures the transnational continuity of Canadian identity, requiring a simple registration process to formalize the child's citizenship status.

Canadian citizenship empowers individuals with the right to vote and stand for political office in federal, provincial, and local elections, enabling them to influence governmental decisions on critical issues like taxation, education, and foreign policy directly.

Participation in Democracy

Canadian citizenship thus encompasses a suite of rights and privileges that enhance an individual's participation in national life, global mobility, and personal security, reflecting Canada's inclusive and globally oriented national identity

Подписание контракта

Citizenship by Descent

In Canada, acquiring citizenship at birth is straightforward: if you're born on Canadian soil, you automatically become a Canadian citizen. Additionally, children born abroad to at least one Canadian parent who themselves were born in Canada or naturalized can also claim Canadian citizenship by descent, provided they are the first generation born outside Canada.

Shift in Citizenship Rules in 2009:

Significant amendments to the citizenship by descent rules were introduced on April 17, 2009. Before this date, children born abroad to a Canadian parent automatically received Canadian citizenship, regardless of how many generations had been born outside Canada. Post-2009, this automatic citizenship was limited to just the first generation born abroad. Consequently, if you were born outside of Canada to a Canadian parent who was also born abroad, you would not be eligible for Canadian citizenship by descent if you represent the second or subsequent generation born outside Canada.

Exception to the Rule:

For children who don't qualify for citizenship by descent due to these rules, their Canadian parent may have the option to sponsor them for permanent residency in Canada. This is typically possible if the child is under 22 years old and not married.

Options for Ineligible Children:

For children who don't qualify for citizenship by descent due to these rules, their Canadian parent may have the option to sponsor them for permanent residency in Canada. This is typically possible if the child is under 22 years old and not married.

This change in rules underscores the importance of understanding the specific requirements and exceptions related to Canadian citizenship, especially for those with connections to Canada living abroad.

Group 2076.png

Other Services

bottom of page